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Yoruba culture is coerced to shift cultural beliefs around sex and gender under colonization.

Date: 1500s


The Yoruba people of South West Nigeria, Benin Republic, and Togo in West Africa acknowledged reproductive roles based on sex and gender before the arrival of European colonists, but Oyěwùmí (1997) argues that these roles were neither fixed nor hierarchical. Cultural notions of "men" and "women" are imposed by colonists, who refuse to acknowledge "female" chiefs, and replace gender-neutral gods with male ones.